哈佛燕京学社学术工作坊——“亚洲-太平洋的早期航海:海洋考古学的视野”即将举行
发布时间: 2013-06-05 浏览次数: 238

 

 

   

Early Navigation in the Asia-Pacific Region:

A Maritime Archaeological Perspective

 

An Academic Workshop at the Harvard-Yenching Institute

June 21-23, 2013

Symposium Brochure

 

 

Participants

 

1. Veronica Walker-Vadillo (Oxford University, UK)

2. Brian Fahy (Oxford University, UK)

3. Bobby Orillaneda (National Museum of Philippine/ Oxford University)

4. Qijiang Deng 邓启江 (National Museum of China, Beijing)

5. Miao Liu 刘淼 (Xiamen University, China)

6. Roberto Junco (SAS/INAH, Mexico)

7. Scott S. Williams (Beeswax Wreck Project Group, Olympia, WA)

8. Russell K. Skowronek (University of Texas Pan American, TX)

9. Edward von der Porten (Drake Navigators Guild, San Francisco, CA)

10. Chunming Wu 吴春明 (Xiamen University / Harvard-Yenching Institute)

11. Kay Ueda (Boston University)

12. Daniel Finamore (Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)

13. Karina Corrigan (Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)

14. Rowan Flad 傅罗文 (Harvard University)

15. Michael Szonyi 宋怡明 (Harvard University)

16. Janis Calleja (Harvard University)

17. Bryan Averbuch (Harvard University)

18. Lam Wengcheong 林永昌 (Harvard University)

19. Junlei Zheng 郑君雷 (Zhongshan University, China)

20. Robert E. Murowchick 慕容杰 (Boston University)

21. Lin Bu 卜琳 (Shanxi Normal University, China)

22. Ping SONG 宋平 (Xiamen University / Harvard-Yenching Institute)

23. Yangjin Pak 朴洋震 (Chungnam National University, Republic of Korea)

 


 

Introduction

 

Maritime archaeology is one facet of archaeology that has developed in important ways in Asia-Pacific region during last a few decades. Many historical shipwrecks have been investigated and excavated by underwater archaeologists from eastern Asia to northern America. A huge amount of artifacts have been recovered from shipwrecks, providing new perspectives on the maritime history of this cross-cultural region. With increasingly larger shipwreck data available, archaeologists on the both sides of the Pacific have started to uncover the life of past societies connected by the sea. This workshop, sponsored by Harvard-Yenching Institute, provides an excellent opportunity for maritime archaeologists from different countries to exchange ideas on Asia-Pacific navigation and maritime cultural history and discuss the role of long-distance maritime trade in East Asian societies and early European colonization in the region. We hope to stimulate productive discussion among maritime archaeologists and historians and further push this field of study to challenge traditional interpretations of early globalism and its development.

Among the underwater archaeological investigations in this vast region, dozens of shipwrecks predating the 16th century have been investigated and excavated, revealing maritime cultural interaction between southeast coastal China and Southeast Asia, and the development of a local maritime cultural community within the South China Sea before the period of expansive European contact. There are also dozens of shipwreck dated to the 16th -18th centuries that have been identified as both east Asian maritime vessels (including, for example, Chinese junks) and European exploration and trading vessels such as Spanish Manila galleons. In eastern Asia, both shipwrecks of both local Asian and European origin have been investigated in southern China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia. In northern America, a number of Spanish shipwrecks have been discovered off the states of California, Oregon, and Washington, as well as Mexico. These interesting maritime archaeological materials show us the early pan-Pacific trading navigation between eastern Asia and the Western world via the trade center of Acapulco, Mexico. These shipwrecks help to reveal the early international maritime trading history between eastern Asia and the West, early European colonization in eastern Asia, and resulting issues of expanding globalization.

The Harvard-Yenching Institute is supporting this workshop as a forum to bring together international maritime archaeologists to focus on Asia-Pacific navigation and maritime cultural history. In this symposium, maritime archaeologists from China, the Philippines, England, Mexico and the United States have been invited to present and discuss their recent and current and research work. This workshop will provide an opportunity for maritime archaeologists from both sides of the Pacific to share their latest information and new developments in maritime archaeological exploration, and will promote mutual understanding of this research. We also hope that this workshop will facilitate the establishment Maritime archaeology is one facet of archaeology that has developed in important ways in Asia-Pacific region during last a few decades of a long term academic collaborative network among maritime archaeologists who work in the Asia-Pacific region.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation Abstracts

 

1. A preliminary study on shipwrecks of the precontact period and the development of regional maritime trade network in East Asia

Chunming Wu (Maritime Archaeology Research Center, Xiamen University, China,

Harvard-Yenching Institute, Harvard University, USA)

 

In last twenty years, underwater archaeology has been broadly carried out in the seas off China’s east and south coasts. More than 50 shipwrecks have been investigated that reveal the long history of maritime trading in east Asian seas both before and after European contact. A series of shipwrecks dated from the 10th to 15th centuries (the Song, Yuan and early Ming dynasties) reflect the maritime cultural interaction among coastal China, East and Southeast Asia, and the resulting local maritime cultural community in this region prior to the period of expanded European contact. This paper introduces the main archaeological content of these shipwrecks, gives an analysis to seafaring history of each case, and presents a synthetical history of regional maritime social and economic networks. This precontact “native” maritime network would provide an important foundation for the early globalization that occurs with the expansion of European exploration and trade here.

 

2. Of Ships and Shipping: The Maritime Archaeology of 15th Century Southeast Asia

Bobby C. Orillaneda (Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology, University of Oxford;

National Museum of the Philippines)

 

Southeast Asia during the 15th century CE is considered a significant period in the region’s maritime history. Archaeological and historical sources document the tail end of a complex, extensive and dynamic inter-regional trade network participated by mainland and insular Southeast Asian polities immediately prior to the arrival of the Europeans in the early 16th century. It involved the emergence of maritime trade-oriented states, the exchange and distribution of a wide variety of natural and manufactured goods and the delineation of exchange systems. While the present corpus of scholarship data have addressed specific themes related to this period, there is a noticeable lack of integrated archaeological data from shipwrecks that can potentially contribute significant knowledge in answering questions about the scale and organization of long distance maritime trade.

This presentation summarizes the archaeological excavation results of fifteenth century shipwrecks in Malaysia (Nanyang, Royal Nanhai, Turiang), the Philippines (Pandanan, Lena Shoal, Santa Cruz), and Thailand (Ko Khram, Rang Kwien) to elucidate aspects of shipbuilding and the export and distribution of trade goods that has been instrumental in illuminating facets of ships and shipping in Southeast Asian waters.

 

3. The investigation and excavation of Xiaobaijiao No.Shipwreck Site in Ningbo, Eastern Sea of China

Qijiang Deng (Underwater Archaeology Center, National Museum of China)

 

The Xiaobaijiao No.shipwreck is located just southwest of Beiyushan island, Xiangshan county, in the East China Sea off the coast of Zhejiang Province. A preliminary underwater archaeological survey of this wreck was carried out in 2008 by the National Museum of China and Ningbo Municipal Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology. China’s Underwater Cultural Heritage Protection Center organized a systematic excavation of the site in 2012. The bottom part of the wreck, which sank during the reign of Qing Emperor Daoguang (1821-1850), has revealed the keel, rib and beam, partition board, and bottom plating timber.. A series of artifacts as blue and white, brown glaze, colorful glaze porcelain, and coins and seals from different countries were collected. Those cultural relics show the maritime trade history of China with Ryukyu and Southeast Asia in the 18th and 19th centuries.

 

4. The Manila Galleons of the 16th century: a nautical perspective

Roberto Junco (Archaeologist Researcher, SAS/INAH, Mexico)

 

The ongoing archaeological project on a 16th century Manila Galleon wreck in the coast of Baja California, Mexico, by the Instituto Nacional de Antopología e Historia (INAH) and distinguished American scholars has yield much information into several aspects of the trade route, shipwreck process, as well as the possible identity and history of the ship itself. The collection of artifacts documented so far is unique in its diversity and quantity. However, the structure of the ship has not been accessed yet due to the impossible conditions of the archaeological context. One of the most interesting aspects of the research being carried out today in the project is that of the possible characteristics of the ship itself. To this purpose, research has been conducted to locate documents and nautical treatises that give information on the Spanish ships that crossed the Pacific in the 16th century from New Spain, that will help in the reconstruction of the wreck and the interpretation of the archaeological materials located which are part of the hull. 

 

5. From Magellan to Urdaneta: the early Spanish exploration of the Pacific and the establishment of the Manila Acapulco galleon trade

Brian Fahy, Veronica Walker Vadillo (Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology, University of Oxford, UK)

 

After “stumbling” with the Americas in 1492, the Spanish crown persevered in its ambitions to reach the real Spice Islands. Several expeditions were launched to bypass the new continent and find a route to Asia. The first Spaniard to reach the East Pacific was Nuez de Balboa, who crossed the strait of Panama in 1513. In 1519 Magellan commanded an expedition to the Spice Islands, and although he died shortly after his arrival in the Philippines, his second in command, Juan Sebastian Elkano, went on to complete the first circumnavigation of the globe. Nevertheless, it took the Spanish nearly half a century to open a regular route between the Spice Islands and the Americas. In this paper we will analyse the different attempts made during the 16th century to establish a westward route between the Spice Islands and the Americas up until the establishment of the Manila-Acapulco galleon trade route. Historical research shows the increasing demands by the Spanish king to find the return trip from the East Indies, while archaeological excavations in early shipwrecks show the products that were demanded by the Spanish and European markets. Through the analysis of both historical and archaeological material, we hope to provide a general overview of the early Spanish trade in the Pacific, from the establishment of the trade route to the cargo analysis of shipwrecks.

 

6. Sixteenth-Century Manila Galleon Cargos on the American West Coast

Edward Von der Porten (Organizer and director of archaeological projects in California and Mexico, Director of the Treasure Island Museum, Navy / Marine Corps / Coast Guard, 1985-1992)

 

Three of the Manila-galleon cargos found on the West Coast of the Americas are from the 16th century -- the earliest years of the trade between Chinese and Spanish merchants that lasted from 1572 through 1815.  They are from the San Felipe shipwreck of 1576 found in Baja California, Francis Drake’s loot from a Spanish ship carrying goods from a Manila galleon of 1578 found at Drakes Bay, California, and the San Agustin shipwreck of 1595, also found at Drakes Bay. These cargos provide insights into the earliest interactions between the Chinese and the Spaniards that created the trans-Pacific trade -- which completed the vision of Columbus.  Much of the surviving cargos consists of Ming porcelains, but numerous stonewares, waxes, and small metal artifacts also have been found.  The San Felipe carried a “sampler” cargo, reflecting the existing Chinese trades with many Asian countries and the earliest efforts to establish which Asiatic goods would be economically viable in the new trade, while the Golden Hind and San Agustin cargos illustrate an established trade suited to New-World and European luxury markets.  In addition, the close study of these cargos and four others found off Manila, off Lisbon, at Saint Helena, and in the South China Sea made it possible to establish a tight chronology for Chinese trade porcelains in the Kraak-Porcelain era from approximately 1570 to 1644.

 

7. The Beeswax Wreck, A Manila Galleon in Oregon, USA

Scott S. Williams, Mitch Marken (Cultural Resources Program Manager, Washington State Dept of Transportation)

 

First documented 1813, the Beeswax Wreck on the Oregon coast has been the subject of much secular and scientific speculation for 200 years, based on Indian oral histories and wreck artifacts exposed on the beach or recovered from archaeological sites. Geoarchaeological and historical research indicate the wreck was an eastbound Manila galleon that likely wrecked prior to the last large regional earthquake and tsunami in A.D. 1700. Several seasons of shore-based archaeological survey, in concert with geomorphologic testing and analysis of offshore sand movement, have illuminated a trail of artifacts that leads to a small area off the coast that may contain the lower hull portions of the wreck. Remote sensing using high-resolution multi-beam sonar has identified two targets with high potential to be the wreck. Archaeological and historical research done to date suggests the wreck is the Santo Cristo de Burgos, a Manila Galleon that disappeared in 1693 with a cargo of beeswax, porcelain and Asian trade goods. The impact of the wreck and its many tons of exotic cargo on Indians of the Northwest Coast are unknown, but it is clear that the Nehalem and Clatsop Indians utilized cargo from the wreck and traded it along the coast and inland up the Columbia River, fashioning projectile points and tools from porcelain and using other salvaged goods.

 

8. Power and prestige foreign goods: Network strategy of maritime kingdom, the Sultanate of Banten, Java, Indonesia

Kay Ueda (Department of Archaeology, Boston University)

 

The network strategy is a useful model to explain socio-cultural emphasis on foreign prestige goods among many maritime polities in Southeast Asia. In this paper, I present a case study of the 17th to 18th century kingdom of Banten, Java, Indonesia to demonstrate the importance of a long-distance network and alliances for the Sultan of Banten to maintain his political power and prestige status. His prestige foreign goods included Chinese porcelain and kendi jugs from other parts of Java. The apparently limited interest in European material culture raises questions of European prestige status in the Sultanate of Banten in the early stage of colonialism, as well as archaeological bias favoring durable goods.

 

9. Early Maritime Cultural Interaction between East and West—A preliminary study on the shipwrecks of the 16th and 17th centuries

Miao Liu, Chunming Wu (Maritime Archaeology Research Center,

Xiamen University, China)

 

From the second half of the 16th century to the first half of the 17th century, the trade pattern in the Southeast China Sea was changed. With the coming of Western navigators, the Chinese  economy was entangled with expanding globalization. A series of shipwrecks of this period have been investigated and excavated, wrecks distributed throughout the areas of southeast coast of China, Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Africa. Most of them were merchant ships from Portugal, Spain, Holland, and China. The main cargoes of these shipwrecks were kraak porcelains of Jingdezhen kilns and other provincial wares. By analysing these wrecks’ porcelain and comparing them with artifacts from a variety of kilns in China and exported ceramics discovered abroad, we will explore the early maritime cultural interaction between east and west and the early globalization process of trade during this period.

 

10. Cinnamon, Ceramics, and Silks: Tracking the Manila Galleon Trade in the Globalization of Spanish Society

Russell K. Skowronek (The University of Texas-Pan American)

 

For two and one half centuries from 1565-1815 the Manila Galleons navigated the vast expanses of the Pacific laden with the highly desired exotica of Asia- spices, fine textiles, and glistening porcelains. Acapulco, while the terminal port for the eastward-bound vessels was in reality the starting point for the distribution of their cargoes to the Iberian motherland and to the farthest corners of their colonial New World empire. These commodities not only captivated the imagination of Spain’s elites through conspicuous consumption but they also would share in the transformation of peoples of all social standings into participants in the nascent global economy. To illustrate these transformations, this diachronic presentation draws on archaeological and documentary evidence from both shipwreck and terrestrial sites in California, Texas, Florida, Mexico, the Philippines and the waters of the Atlantic dating from the sixteenth through nineteenth centuries.

 

 

 

Schedule

 

 

 

06/20/2013 Thursday, Check in at hotel

Irving House, 24 Irving Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138

 

Dinner for invited guests..................................................................................................... 7:00 pm

 

 

06/21/2013 Friday

Breakfast, Irving House, ground floor.............................................................. 7:00a.m.-8:30 a.m.

 

Symposium........................................................................................................ 9:00 a.m.-5:30 p.m.

Harvard-Yenching Institute Common Room, 2 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA

 

Panels I and II:

Moderator: Prof. Rowan Flad (Dept. of Anthropology, Harvard University)

 

Panel I...................................................................................................................... 9:00-10:30 a.m.

1. Chunming WU (Xiamen University of China, Harvard-Yenching Institute)................. 9:00-9:20 a.m.

........... A preliminary study on shipwrecks of the precontact period and the development of regional maritime trade networks in East Asia

 

2. Bobby C. Orillaneda(Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology / National Museum of the Philippines)  9:20-9:40 a.m.

........... Of Ships and Shipping: The Maritime Archaeology of 15th Century Southeast Asia

 

3. Qijiang DENG (Underwater Archaeology Center,

........... National Museum of China)............................................................................. 9:40-10:00 a.m.

........... The investigation and excavation of the Xiaobaijiao No. Shipwreck Site in Ningbo, East China Sea

 

4. Questions and Discussion.................................................................................... 10:00-10:30 am

 

Coffee Break.......................................................................................................... 10:30-11:00 a.m.

 

Panel II.................................................................................................................... 11:00-12:10 am

1. Roberto Junco (Underwater Archaeology Vice-Directorate (SAS), National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), Mexico City, Mexico......................................................................... 11:00-11:20 am

........... The Manila Galleons of the 16th century: a nautical perspective

 

2. Brian Fahy and Veronica Walker Vadillo (Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology, University of Oxford, UK)....................................................................................................................... 11:20-11:40 am

........... From Magellan to Urdaneta: the early Spanish exploration of the Pacific and the establishment of the Manila Acapulco galleon trade

 

3. Questions and Discussion.................................................................................. 11:40-12:10 p.m.

 

Lunch and coffee...................................................................................................... 12:10-1:30 pm

 

 

Panels III and IV:

Moderator: Prof. Robert E. Murowchick (Dept of Archaeology, Boston University)

 

Panel III..................................................................................................................... 1:30-3:00 p.m.

1. Edward Von der Porten (Drake Navigators Guild, San Francisco, CA)................... 1:30-1:50 p.m.

........... Sixteenth-Century Manila Galleon Cargos on the American West Coast

 

2. Scott S. Williams and Mitch Marken (Washington State Dept. of Transportation, Olympia, WA) 1:50-2:10pm

........... The Beeswax Wreck, A Manila Galleon in Oregon, USA

 

3. Kaoru (Kay) Ueda (Department of Archaeology, Boston University)........................ 2:10-2:30 p.m.

........... Power, Prestige, and Foreign Goods: Network Strategy of a Maritime Kingdom, the Sultanate of Banten, Java, Indonesia

 

4. Questions and Discussion...................................................................................... 2:30-3:00 p.m.

 

Coffee Break.............................................................................................................. 3:00-3:30 p.m.

 

Panel IV..................................................................................................................... 3:30-4:40 p.m.

 

1. Miao LIU and Chunming WU (Maritime Archaeology Research Center,

........... Xiamen University, China)................................................................................. 3:30-3:50 p.m.

            Early Maritime Cultural Interaction between East and West—A preliminary study on the shipwrecks of 16-17th centuries

 

2. Russell K. Skowronek (The University of Texas-Pan American)............................. 3:50-4:10 p.m.

........... Cinnamon, Ceramics, and Silks: Tracking the Manila Galleon Trade in the Globalization of Spanish Society

 

3Questions and Discussion................................................................................... 4:10-4:40 p.m.

 

 

Roundtable Discussion............................................................................................. 4:40-5:30 p.m.

1. Publication of the papers

2. Opportunities for future cooperation in maritime archaeology

 

Dinner for invited guests................................................................................................... 7:00 p.m.

 

 

06/22/2013 Saturday

Breakfast, Irving House, ground floor..................................................................... 7:00-8:30 a.m.

 

Maritime Museum Field Trip.......................................................................... 9:00 am—5:30 p.m.

Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA

Meet at Irving House at 8:50 a.m. to board chartered mini-bus at 9:00 a.m. to Salem.

Lunch at Peabody Essex Museum....................................................................................... 12:00 p.m.

Leave Peabody Essex Museum for return to Cambridge........................................................ 3:00 p.m.

Dinner for invited guests................................................................................................... 7:00 p.m.

 

06/23/2013 Sunday

Breakfast, Irving House, ground floor............................................................................... 7:00-8:00am

Check out before 12:00 noon